International aid and migration as a specialization type of small countries
АнотаціяThe article analyzes the effects of economy size on international aid receipts and migration. Small developing countries are more dependenton foreign aid and migration than other developing countries. Therefore a particular group of small countries is called MIRAB (Migration, Remittances, Aid and Bureaucracy).While small countries benefit from bigger international aid receipts per capita, relative to GNI or gross capital formation, aid relative to import is not much bigger than in large countries. The reasons of preferential treatment for small countries is their vulnerability to foreign economic and natural disaster shocks, distribution of votes in international organizations, better transparency of international aid use, lower costs of the image of a donor, trade opennessand trade deficits, and reluctance to help very large countries.Small states have larger emigration and immigration ratios, but especially suffer from brain drain and low probability of repatriation. The reasons include deep specialization of production, lower demand for skilled labor in exporters of raw materials, vulnerability to external shocks, impossibility of domestic migration. On the other hand small countries can face larger immigration quotas and benefit from transfers from emigrants.The MIRAB phenomenon also can be incident to some larger states. Originally the middle sized economy ofUkrainewas less dependent on international aid, but under the recent economic crisisits ratio to GNI and gross capital formation increased substantially. There is some similarity ofUkrainewith small countries by indicators of migration. But larger economy and territory provide better opportunities for domestic migration. Trends in personal remittances are also better than in small countries.
Anklesaria Aiyar, S. S. Small States: Not Handicapped and Under-Aided, but Advantaged and Over-Aided [Text] / Swaminathan S. AnklesariaAiyar // Cato Journal. – 2008. – Vol. 28. – № 3. – P. 449–478.
Arvin, M. Are There Country Size and Middle-income Biases in the Provision of EC Multilateral Foreign Aid? [Text] / M. Arvin, J. Rice, B. Cater // The European Journal of Development Research. – 2001. – Vol. 13. – № 2. – P. 49–57.
Baldacchino, G. The Beak of the Finch: Insights into the Economic Development of Small Economies [Text] / G. Baldacchino, G. Bertram // The Round Table: The Commonwealth Journal of International Affairs. – 2009. – Vol. 98. – № 401. – P. 141–160. DOI: 10.1080/00358530902757867.
Becerra, O. Foreign Aid in the Aftermath of Large Natural Disasters : IDB Working Paper № IDB-WP-333 [Text] / O. Becerra, E. Cavallo, IlanNoy. – Washington, D.C: Inter-American Development Bank, 2012. – 25 p.
Beine, M. Brain Drain and its Determinants: A Major Issue for Small States [Text]: IZA Discussion Paper № 3398/ M. Beine, F. Docquier, M. Schiff. – Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor, 2008. – 23 p.
Docquier, F. Measuring Skilled Migration Rates. The Case of Small States [Text]: Policy Research Working Paper № 4827 / F. Docquier, M. Schiff. – Washington DC: The World Bank, Development Research Group, Trade Team, 2009. – 32 p.
Docquier, F. Measuring the International Mobility of Skilled Workers (1990–2000): Release 1.0 [Text]: Policy Research Working paper 01/2004 / F. Docquier, A.Marfouk. – Washington, D.C.: The World Bank, 2004. – 37 p.
Dumont, J.-Ch. “Beyond the Headlines”. New Evidence on the Brain Drain [Text] / J.-Ch. Dumont et Georges Lemaître // Revue économique. – 2005/6. – Vol. 56. – P.1275–1299. DOI : 10.3917/reco.566.1275
Duncan, R. Obstacles to Economic Growth in Six Pacific Island Countries: Working Paper [Electronic resource] / R. Duncan, H. Nakagawa. – Washington, D.C.: The World Bank, 2006. – 67 p. – Access mode: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/ INTDEBTDEPT/Resources/468980-1206974166266/4833916-1206989877225/ DuncanNakagawaObstacles.pdf. – Title from the screen.
Easter, Ch. Small States Development: A Commonwealth Vulnerability Index [Text] / Ch. Easter // The Round Table: The Commonwealth Journal of International Affairs. – 1999. – Vol.88. – № 351. – P. 403–422. DOI: 10.1080/003585399107947.
Fujita, M. Strategic Immigration Policies and Welfare in Heterogeneous Countries: Nota di lavoro 2.2004 [Text] / M. Fujita, Sh. Weber. – Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei, 2004. – 21 p.
Guillaumont, P. Accounting for Vulnerability of African Countries in Performance Based Aid Allocation [Text]: Working paper № 103 / P. Guillaumont, S. Guillaumont-Jeanneney. – Tunis: African Development Bank, 2009. – 24 p.
Nyamtseren, L. Challenges and Opportunities of Small Countries for Integration into the Global Economy, as a Case of Mongolia [Text]: Dresden Discussion Paper in Economics № 13/04 / L. Nyamtseren. – Dresden: Dresden University of Technology, 2004. – 45 p.
Readiness of Small Countries to Participate in the Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) [Text]. – Mexico: United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, 1996. – 93 p.
Small States: Making the Most of Development Assistance [Text]. A Synthesis of World Bank Evaluation Findings. – Washington D. С.: The World Bank, Independent Evaluation Group, 2006. – 41 p.
Small States: Meeting Challenges in the Global Economy [Text]: Report of the Commonwealth Secretariat / World Bank Joint Task Force on Small States. – London, Washington, D.C.: Commonwealth Secretariat, World Bank, 2000. – 127 p.
The Growth Report. Strategies for Sustained Growth and Inclusive Development [Text]. – Washington, DC: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank, the Commission on Growth and Development, 2008. – 183 p.
Tisdell, C. Economic Prospects for Small Island Economies, Particularly in the South Pacific, in a Globalising World [Text]: Economic Theory, Applications and Issues Working Paper № 43 / C. Tisdell. – Brisbane : The University of Queensland, 2006. – 19 p.
Vujakovic, P. How to Measure Globalisation? A New Globalisation Index (NGI) [Text]: Working paper № 343 / P. Vujakovic. – Wien: Österreichisches Institutfür Wirtschaftsforschung, 2009. – 35 p.
Wagner, C. G. Small Country Strategies. On the Internet, No One Knows You’re a Small Country [Text] / C. G. Wagner // The Futurist. – 1999. – Vol. 33. – № 10. – P. 6.
World Bank World Development Indicators [Electronic resource]. The World Bank, December, 2015. – Access mode: http://data.worldbank.org/data-catalog/world-development-indicators. – Title from the screen.